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Essay On Laws Are Never Respected In India

Women safety in India is a big concern which has been a most important topic regarding women safety. We have provided below various essay on Safety of Women in India in order to help students. Now-a-days, essays or paragraphs writing have been common strategy followed by the teachers to enhance the skill and knowledge of students about any topic. All the Safety of Women in India essay are written using very simple words under various words limit according to the need and requirement of students. They can select any of the essays given below:

Essay on Safety of Women in India

Safety of Women in India Essay 1 (100 words)

As we all know that India is a most famous country all over the world for its great tradition and culture where women are given most respected place in the society from the ancient time. It is the country where women are considered as safer and most respected. Women are given the place of Goddess Lakshmi in the Indian society. Indian women are found working in all fields like aeronautics, space, politics, banks, schools, sports, businesses, army, police, and many more. We cannot say that this country has no any women concern however we cannot ignore positive points for women in India. If we remember our history, we found that there was Panchaali Pratha in which a single woman (Draupadi) was allowed to get married to five men (Pandavas). It was all that what we see from our open eyes however if we see behind the curtain we will found all the crimes against women at home, offices, streets, etc. By seeing last few crimes against women in India such as rape cases, acid attacks, etc, the safety of women has been in doubt.

Safety of Women in India Essay 2 (150 words)

Safety of women matters a lot whether at home, outside the home or working place. Last few crimes against women especially rape cases were very dread and fearful. Because of such crimes, women safety in India has become a doubtful topic. According to the statistics of National Crime Records Bureau, highest rate of crime against women was recorded in the Chennai in 2000 (around 4,037 incidences). Chennai is the capital of southern state of Tamil Nadu however has been marked as city with high rate of crimes against women. However, it was seen some decrease in the crime rate against women in the subsequent years (around 838 by 2013). It has been recorded as the largest fall in the crime rate than other cities in India. It was just opposite in the capital of India, Delhi. Crime rate against women in Delhi was 17.6/100,000 females in 2000 (2,122 incidents) and 151.13/100,000 females in 2013 (11,449 incidents).

Some of the most common crimes against women are rape, dowry deaths, sexual harassment at home or work place, kidnapping and abduction, cruelty by husband, relatives, assault on a woman, and sex trafficking.

Safety of Women in India Essay 3 (200 words)

In the last few years, crime against women in Delhi has increased to a great extent. According to the statistics, it is found that every two out of three women have suffered around two to five times sexual harassment in the last year. According to the survey of women, it is found that women are losing their confidence in police. By the survey of Delhi government’s Women and Child Development Department, around 80% of the women in national capital have fear regarding their safety.

Women are harassed not only in the night or evening but also in the day time at their home, working places, or other places like street, club, etc. It is found through the survey that the reason of sexual harassment is the lack of gender-friendly environment and improper functional infrastructure such as consumption of alcohol and drugs in open area, lack of adequate lighting, safe public toilets, sidewalks, lack of effective police service, lack of properly working helpline numbers, etc. A huge percentage of women have no faith that police can curb such harassment cases. There is an urgent need to understand and solve this problem of women safety so that they can also grow equally like men in their own country.


Safety of Women in India Essay 4 (250 words)

It is very true that women in India are given a place of Goddess Lakshmi in the Indian society however we also cannot ignore the negative aspect of women position in India. Every day and every minute some women of all walks of life (a mother, a sister, a wife, young girls, and girl baby children) are getting harassed, molested, assaulted, and violated at various places all over the country. Areas like streets, public spaces, public transport, etc have been the territory of women hunters. Girl students studying in the schools or colleges have to shield themselves through books or bags or they have to wear clothes which can cover them completely. In some cases a girl child is sale by her parents just to earn some money. Girls generally face acid attacks on the streets and kidnapping for the sex purpose by strangers. According to the statistics, it is found that a woman is raped in India every 20 minutes.

In the rural areas, women are still being raped by a family member, beaten by husbands or parents-in-law, burned for dowry, and so many cases. Nirbhaya gang-rape in the national capital of India was a dreadful event which can never be forgotten. Woman covers almost half population of the country so they are half participants in the growth and development of India. We are running in the 21st century, an advanced era however it is very shame to say about the doubtful safety of woman in India.

Safety of Women in India Essay 5 (300 words)


Safety of women in India is a vast topic now-a-days. We cannot say that women are safe in India by seeing the last few year crimes against women especially in the national capital. Women generally feel frightened while going alone outside to the home. It is a very sad reality of the country that its women citizens are living with fear all time. Personal safety of women has been the topic of importance for every Indian citizen. In order to improve the condition regarding women safety in India, following are some points as tips for women safety:

Some Tips Regarding Women Safety

  • Self defence techniques are the first and foremost thing to which each and every woman must be aware of and get proper self-defense training for their safety. They must be aware of some effective defence techniques such as kicks to groin, blocking punches, etc.
  • Generally most of the women are gifted with sixth sense which they must use whenever they become in some problem. They should at once avoid any situation which they feel bad for them.
  • Escape and run is also a good way to reduce some risks of women whenever they become in problem. They should never go with any unknown person alone at some unknown places.
  • Women must understand and feel their physical power and use accordingly. They never feel themselves weak than men and take some self defence training.
  • They should be careful while communicating with someone on internet in the cyberspace.
  • Pepper spray can also be proved as a useful self-defence tool however it has a drawback that some people cannot be harmed through it even after full-face spray. It may not stop the attacker so women should not depend on it completely and use other techniques also.
  • They must have all the emergency numbers with them and whatsapp also if possible so that they can immediately tell to their family members and police.
  • Women should be very conscious while driving the car and going to any trip. They must lock all the doors of car while travelling with own or private car.


Women safety is a big social issue which needs to be solved urgently by the effort of all. It is inhibiting the growth and development of the country and most importantly hurting the half population of the country in all aspects (physically, mentally, and socially).


Safety of Women in India Essay 6 (400 words)


In the past few years, the safety of women in India has been down because of some continuous and terrible crimes against women. There has been decline in the women status from ancient to medieval period which is continued in such an advanced era. Women of India have equal rights as like as men of this country as they occupy almost half population of the country and involved in half proportion in the growth and development of the country.

It is true that women in modern India are joining high offices (President, Speaker of Lok Sabha, Union Ministers, Leader of Opposition, Chief Minister, Governor, etc) however on the back of curtain they are being exploited too. According to the Constitution of India, they have equal rights of dignity, equality, and freedom from gender discrimination. Indian women are continuously facing numerous problems such as sexual harassment, violent victimization through rape, acid attack, dowry deaths, forced prostitution, and many more.

Education and Economic Development

Number of women heading the households in India is found decreased though female literacy rate is still less than male literacy rate. Urban girls are nearly equal in education like boys however in the rural areas there is still a big gap. On the other hand, some Indian states (like Kerala and Mizoram) have achieved universal female literacy. So, women in such states have high social and economic status. Women literacy rate in India is still less because of the inadequate school facilities, sanitary facilities, increasing crimes against women, shortage of female teachers, gender discrimination in the society, etc. According to the statistics of 2015, it is found that women (above 15 years or older) literacy rate is 60.6% whereas male literacy rate is 81.3%.

Crimes against women in India

There is a big list of crimes against women in India such as acid attack, child marriages, domestic violence, forceful domestic work, child abuse, dowry deaths, female infanticide and sex-selective abortions, child labour, honor killings, rape, sexual harassment, trafficking, forced for prostitution, and many more.

What are Safety Laws for Women in India

There is a list of safety laws for women in India working in the field to provide safety to the women from all type of crimes against women. Some safety laws are Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929, Special Marriage Act 1954, Hindu Marriage Act 1955, Hindu Widows Remarriage Act 1856, Indian Penal Code 1860, Dowry Prohibition Act 1961, Maternity Benefit Act 1861, Foreign Marriage Act 1969, Indian Divorce Act 1969, Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971, Christian Marriage Act 1872, Code of Criminal Procedure 1973, Equal Remuneration Act 1976, Married Women’s Property Act 1874, Births, Deaths & Marriages Registration Act 1886, Indecent Representation of Women (Prevention) Act 1986, Muslim women (protection of rights on divorce) Act 1986, Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act 1987, National Commission for Women Act 1990, Prohibition of Sex Selection Act 1994, Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005, Prevention of Children from Sexual Offences Act 2012, Sexual Harassment of Women at Work Place Act 2013, etc.

Another Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Bill, 2015 has been passed replacing the existing Indian juvenile delinquency law of 2000 (Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000). This act was passed by the Lok Sabha on 7th of May in 2015 and however, by the Rajya Sabha on 22nd of December in 2015. This act is passed to lower down the juvenile age from 18 to 16 years in cases of heinous offense (especially after the release of Nirbhaya’s case accused juvenile).


Despite of formation of various effective rules and regulations by the Indian government to handle and control the crimes against women, the number and frequency of crimes against women are increasing day by day. Women status in the country has been more offensive and dreadful in the last few years. It has decreased the confidence level of women for safety in their own country. Women are in doubtful condition for their safety and have fear while going anywhere else outside their home (office, market, etc). We should not blame the government because women safety is not only the responsibility of government only, it is the responsibility of each and every Indian citizen especially men who need to change their mind set for women.

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"Indian law" redirects here. For Native American Indian law, see Native American civil rights.

Law of India refers to the system of law in modern India. India maintains a hybrid legal system with a mixture of civil, common law and customary or religious law within the legal framework inherited from the colonial era and various legislation first introduced by the British are still in effect in modified forms today. Since the drafting of the Indian Constitution, Indian laws also adhere to the United Nations guidelines on human rights law and the environmental law. Certain international trade laws, such as those on intellectual property, are also enforced in India.

Indian personal law is fairly complex, with each religion adhering to its own specific laws. In most states, registering of marriages and divorces is not compulsory. Separate laws govern Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, and followers of other religions. The exception to this rule is in the state of Goa, where a uniform civil code is in place, in which all religions have a common law regarding marriages, divorces, and adoption. In the first major reformist judgment for the last decade, the Supreme Court of India banned the Islamic practice of "Triple Talaq" (divorce by uttering of the "Talaq" word thrice by the husband).[1] The landmark Supreme Court of India judgment was welcomed by women activists across India.[2]

As of January 2017[update], there were about 1,248 laws.[3] However, since there are Central laws as well as State laws, it is difficult to ascertain their exact numbers as on a given date and the best way to find the Central Laws in India is from the official website.[4]


Main article: History of Indian law

Ancient India represented a distinct tradition of law, and had a historically independent school of legal theory and practice. The Arthashastra, dating from 400 BC and the Manusmriti, from 100 AD, were influential treatises in India, texts that were considered authoritative legal guidance.[5]Manu's central philosophy was tolerance and pluralism, and was cited across Southeast Asia.[6]

Early in this period, which culminated in the creation of the Gupta Empire, relations with ancient Greece and Rome were not infrequent. The appearance of similar fundamental institutions of international law in various parts of the world show that they are inherent in international society, irrespective of culture and tradition.[7] Inter-State relations in the pre-Islamic period resulted in clear-cut rules of warfare of a high humanitarian standard, in rules of neutrality, of treaty law, of customary law embodied in religious charters, in exchange of embassies of a temporary or semi-permanent character.[8]

With the advent of the British Raj, there was a break in tradition, and Hindu and Islamic law were abolished in favour of British common law.[9] As a result, the present judicial system of the country derives largely from the British system and has few, if any, connections to Indian legal institutions of the pre-British era.[10]

Constitutional and administrative law[edit]

Main articles: Indian constitutional law and Indian administrative law

The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950 is the lengthiest written constitution in the world.[11] Although its administrative provisions are to a large extent based on the Government of India Act 1935, it also contains various other provisions that were drawn from other constitutions in the world at the time of its creation.[11] It provides details of the administration of both the Union and the States, and codifies the relations between the Federal Government and the State Governments.[12] Also incorporated into the text are a chapter on the fundamental rights of citizens, as well as a chapter on directive principles of state policy.[13]

The constitution prescribes a federal structure of government, with a clearly defined separation of legislative and executive powers between the Federation and the States.[14] Each State Government has the freedom to draft its own laws on subjects classified as state subjects.[15] Laws passed by the Parliament of India and other pre-existing central laws on subjects classified as central subjects are binding on all citizens. However, the Constitution also has certain unitary features, such as vesting power of amendment solely in the Federal Government,[16] the absence of dual citizenship,[17] and the overriding authority assumed by the Federal Government in times of emergency.[18]

Criminal law[edit]

Main article: Indian criminal law

The Indian Penal Code formulated by the British during the British Raj in 1860, forms the backbone of criminal law in India. The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 governs the procedural aspects of the criminal law.[19]

Jury trials were abolished by the government in 1960 on the grounds they would be susceptible to media and public influence. This decision was based on an 8-1 acquittal of Kawas Nanavati in K. M. Nanavati vs. State of Maharashtra, which was overturned by higher courts.

In February 2011, the Supreme Court of India ruled that criminal defendants have a constitutional right to counsel.[20]

Capital punishment in India is legal. The last execution was conducted on February 28, 2017, when two women, Renuka Shinde and Seema Mohan Gavit, who were guilty of kidnapping and killing at least 13 children under 6 years, were executed at Yerwada Central Jail in the morning. They were also the first women in India to be given capital punishment.

Contract law[edit]

Main article: Indian contract law

The main contract law in India is codified in the Indian Contract Act, which came into effect on 1 September 1872 and extends to all India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It governs entrance into contract, and effects of breach of contract. Indian Contract law is popularly known as mercantile law of India. Originally Indian Sales of Goods Act and Partnership Act were part of Indian Contract act, but due to needed amendment these acts were separated from Contract Act. The Contract act is the main and most used[citation needed] act of legal agreements in India.

Labour law[edit]

Main article: Indian labour law

Indian labour law are among the most comprehensive in the world. They have been criticised by the World Bank,[21][22] primarily on the grounds of the inflexibility that results from government needing to approve dismissals. In practice, there is a large informal sector of workers, between 80 or 90 per cent of the labour force, to whom labour rights are not actually available and laws are not enforced.

Company law[edit]

Main article: Indian company law

The current Indian company law was updated and recodified in the Companies Act 2013.

Tort law[edit]

Main article: Indian tort law

The development of constitutionaltort law in India began in the early 1980s.[23] It influenced the direction tort law in India took during the 1990s.[23] In recognising state liability, constitutional tort deviates from established norms in tort law.[23] This covers custodial deaths, police atrocities, encounter killings, illegal detention and disappearances. Law commission of India's first report was relating to the Liability of the State in Tort. This report was submitted by the Law commission of India on 11 May 1956. State owes tortious Liability under Article 300 of Indian Constitution.[24]

Property law[edit]

Main article: Indian property law

Further information: The Transfer of Property Act 1882

Tax law[edit]

Main article: Indian tax law

Indian tax law involves several different taxes levied by different governments. Income Tax is levied by the Central Government under the Income Tax Act 1961. Customs and excise duties are also levied by the Central government. Sales tax is levied under VAT legislation at the state level.

The authority to levy a tax is derived from the Constitution of India which allocates the power to levy various taxes between the Centre and the State. An important restriction on this power is Article 265 of the Constitution which states that "No tax shall be levied or collected except by the authority of law."[25] Therefore, each tax levied or collected has to be backed by an accompanying law, passed either by the Parliament or the State Legislature. In 2010-11, the gross tax collection amounted to ₹ 7.92 billion (Long scale), with direct tax and indirect tax contributing 56% and 44% respectively.[26]

Central Board of Direct Taxes[edit]

The Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) is a part of the Department of Revenue in the Ministry of Finance, Government of India.[27] The CBDT provides essential inputs for policy and planning of direct taxes in India and is also responsible for administration of the direct tax laws through Income Tax Department. The CBDT is a statutory authority functioning under the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1963.It is India’s official FATF unit.The Central Board of Revenue as the Department apex body charged with the administration of taxes came into existence as a result of the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1924. Initially the Board was in charge of both direct and indirect taxes. However, when the administration of taxes became too unwieldy for one Board to handle, the Board was split up into two, namely the Central Board of Direct Taxes and Central Board of Excise and Customs with effect from 1 January 1964. This bifurcation was brought about by constitution of the two Boards u/s 3 of the Central Boards of Revenue Act, 1963.

Income Tax Act of 1961[edit]

The major tax enactment is the Income Tax Act of 1961 passed by the Parliament, which establishes and governs the taxation of the incomes of individuals and corporations.[28] This Act imposes a tax on income under the following five heads:[29]

  • Income from house and property,
  • Income from business and profession,
  • Income from salaries,
  • Income in the form of Capital gains, and
  • Income from other sources

However, this Act may soon be repealed and be replaced with a new Act consolidating the law relating to Income Tax and Wealth Tax, the new proposed legislation is called the Direct Taxes Code (to become the Direct Taxes Code, Act 2010). Act was referred to Parliamentary standing committee which has submitted its recommendations. Act is expected to be implemented with changes from the Financial Year 2013–14.[30]

Goods and Services Tax[edit]

Goods and Services Tax (GST)Goods and Services Tax (India) is a comprehensive indirect tax on manufacture, sale and consumption of goods and services throughout India to replace taxes levied by the central and state governments. It was introduced as The Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act 2016, following the passage of Constitution 101st Amendment Bill. The GST is governed by GST Council and its Chairman is Union Finance Minister of India - Arun Jaitley.

This method allows GST-registered businesses to claim tax credit to the value of GST they paid on purchase of goods or services as part of their normal commercial activity. Administrative responsibility would generally rest with a single authority to levy tax on goods and services. Exports would be considered as zero-rated supply and imports would be levied the same taxes as domestic goods and services adhering to the destination principle in addition to the Customs Duty which will not be subsumed in the GST.

Introduction of Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a significant step in the reform of indirect taxation in India. Amalgamating several Central and State taxes into a single tax would mitigate cascading or double taxation, facilitating a common national market. The simplicity of the tax should lead to easier administration and enforcement. From the consumer point of view, the biggest advantage would be in terms of a reduction in the overall tax burden on goods, which is currently estimated at 25%-30%, free movement of goods from one state to another without stopping at state borders for hours for payment of state tax or entry tax and reduction in paperwork to a large extent.

GST is applicable from 1 July 2017.

Trust law[edit]

Main article: Indian trusts law

Trust law in India is mainly codified in the Indian Trusts Act of 1882, which came into force on March 1, 1882. It extends to the whole of India except for the state of Jammu and Kashmir and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indian law follows principles of English law in most areas of law, but the law of trusts is a notable exception. Indian law does not recognise "double ownership", and a beneficiary of trust property is not the equitable owner of the property in Indian law.

Family law – Personal law[edit]

Main articles: Indian family law and Dowry law in India

Family laws in India are different when Warren Hastings in 1772 created provisions prescribing Hindu law for Hindus and Islamic law for Muslims, for litigation relating to personal matters.[31] However, after independence, efforts have been made to modernise various aspects of personal law and bring about uniformity among various religions. Recent reform has affected custody and guardianship laws, adoption laws, succession law, and laws concerning domestic violence and child marriage.

Hindu Law[edit]

Main article: Hindu Personal Law

As far as Hindus are concerned Hindu Law is a specific branch of law. Though the attempt made by the first parliament after independence did not succeed in bringing forth a Hindu Code comprising the entire field of Hindu family law, laws could be enacted touching upon all major areas that affect family life among Hindus in India.[citation needed] Jains, Sikhs and Buddhists are also covered by Hindu law

Muslim law[edit]

Main article: Muslim Personal Law in India

Indian Muslims' personal laws are based upon the Sharia, which is thus partially applied in India,[32] and laws and legal judgements adapting and adjusting Sharia for Indian society. The portion of the fiqh applicable to Indian Muslims as personal law is termed Mohammedan law. Despite being largely uncodified, Mohammedan law has the same legal status as other codified statutes.[33] The development of the law is largely on the basis of judicial precedent, which in recent times has been subject to review by the courts.[33] The concept of the judicial precedent and of 'review by the courts' is a key component of the British common law upon which Indian law is based. The contribution of Justice V.R. Krishna Iyer in the matter of interpretation of the statutory as well as personal law is significant.

Sunni Law:

  • Quran
  • Sunna or Ahdis (Tradition of the Prophet)
  • Ijma (Unanimous Decision of the Jurists)
  • Qiyas ( Analogical deduction)

As per Shia Law:

Usooli Shia up

  • Quran
  • Tradition (only those that have come from the family of the Prophet)
  • Ijma (only those confirmed by Imams)
  • Reasons

Akhbari Shia

  • Tradition (only those that have come from the family of the Prophet)

2. "Secondary Source"

Polygamy and triple talaq is a subject of debate from long time. It has been abolished in many Islamic countries, but still holds its legal validity in the secular country of India. Supreme court asked the central government for its views, to which it replied that polygamy should be done away with.[34][35][36]

Christian Law[edit]

Main article: Christian Personal Law

For Christians, a distinct branch of law known as Christian Law, mostly based on specific statutes, applies.

Christian law of Succession and Divorce in India have undergone changes in recent years. The Indian Divorce (Amendment) Act of 2001 has brought in considerable changes in the grounds available for divorce. By now Christian law in India has emerged as a separate branch of law. It covers the entire spectrum of family law so far as it concerns Christians in India. Christian law, to a great extent is based on English law but there are laws that originated on the strength of customary practices and precedents.

Christian family law has now distinct sub branches like laws on marriage, divorce, restitution, judicial separation, succession, adoption, guardianship, maintenance, custody of minor children and relevance of canon law and all that regulates familial relationship.

Nationality law[edit]

Main article: Indian nationality law

Nationality law or citizenship law is mainly codified in the constitution of India and the Citizenship Act of 1955. Although the Constitution of India bars multiple citizenship, the Parliament of India passed on 7 January 2004, a law creating a new form of very limited dual nationality called Overseas Citizenship of India. Overseas citizens of India have no form of political rights or participation in the government, however, and there are no plans to issue to overseas citizens any form of Indian passport.

Law enforcement[edit]

Main article: Law enforcement in India

Law enforcement in India is undertaken by numerous law enforcement agencies. Like many federal structures, the nature of the Constitution of India mandates law and order as a subject of the state, therefore the bulk of the policing lies with the respective states and territories of India.

At the federal level, the many agencies are part of the Union Ministry of Home Affairs, and support the states in their duties. Larger cities also operate metropolitan police forces, under respective state governments. All senior police officers in the state police forces, as well as those in the federal agencies, are members of the Indian Police Service (IPS) and Indian Revenue Service (IRS), two of the several kinds of civil services. They are recruited by the Union Public Service Commission.

Police Force[edit]

The federal police are controlled by the central Government of India. The majority of federal law enforcement agencies are controlled by the Ministry of Home Affairs. The head of each of the federal law enforcement agencies is always an Indian Police Service officer (IPS). The constitution assigns responsibility for maintaining law and order to the states and territories, and almost all routine policing—including apprehension of criminals—is carried out by state-level police forces. The constitution also permits the central government to participate in police operations and organisation by authorising the maintenance of the Indian Police Service. Indian Police Service (IPS) officers are recruited by the Union Public Service Commission through a competitive nationwide examination. On completion of a nationwide basic public-service course, the Indian Police Service recruits attend the National Police Academy at Hyderabad, Telangana, for training. They are then assigned to particular state or union territory forces, where they usually remain for the rest of their careers. About 50 percent of the officers are regularly assigned to states or territories other than their own in an effort to promote national integration.

Law reform[edit]

Government usually appoints Law Commission panels to study and make non-binding recommendations for the law reform. In first 65 years 1,301 obsolete laws were repealed, including 1029 old laws in 1950 by Jawaharlal Nehru and 272 old laws in 2004 by Atal Bihari Vajpayee. After that 1,824 such laws were repealed by Narendra Modi government between May 2014 to December 2017, taking the total to 3,125.[37]

See also[edit]


  1. ^Wu, Huizhong (August 23, 2017). "Triple talaq: India's top court bans Islamic practice of instant divorce". CNN. Retrieved February 3, 2018. 
  2. ^Safi, Michael; Amrit Dhillon (August 22, 2017). "India court bans Islamic instant divorce in huge win for women's rights". The Guardian. Delhi. Retrieved February 3, 2018. 
  3. ^"Indian Numbered Acts". LIIofIndia. Retrieved February 3, 2018. 
  4. ^"About India Code Updated Acts". Ministry of Law and Justice, Legislative Department. Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  5. ^Glenn 2000, p. 255
  6. ^Glenn 2000, p. 276
  7. ^Alexander, C.H. (July 1952). "International Law in India". The International and Comparative Law Quarterly. 1 (3): 289–300. ISSN 0020-5893. 
  8. ^Viswanatha, S.T., International Law in Ancient India, 1925
  9. ^Glenn 2000, p. 273
  10. ^Jain 2006, p. 2
  11. ^ abBasu 2007, p. 41
  12. ^Basu 2007, p. 42
  13. ^Basu 2007, p. 43
  14. ^Basu 2007, p. 53
  15. ^"Laws of India". Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  16. ^Basu 2007, p. 50
  17. ^Basu 2007, p. 59
  18. ^Basu 2007, p. 63
  19. ^"NANI PALKHIVALA - LAW RESOURCE INDIA". Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  20. ^Dwyer Arce (February 28, 2011). "India Supreme Court finds constitutional right to counsel". JURIST – Paper Chase. 
  21. ^"India Country Overview 2008". World Bank. 2008. 
  22. ^"World Bank criticizes India's labor laws". 
  23. ^ abcDr. Usha Ramachandran. "Tort Law in India"(PDF). 
  24. ^"LIABILITY OF THE STATE IN TORT". Retrieved 9 July 2016. 
  25. ^Article 265 of the Indian Constitution(PDF), archived from the original(PDF) on 9 September 2014, retrieved 18 April 2009 
  26. ^"Economic growth boosts India's tax collection". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 2012-02-09. 
  27. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 2012-12-01. 
  28. ^Indian Income Tax Act, 1961, retrieved 2009-04-18 
  29. ^Section 14 of Income Tax Act, archived from the original on 11 March 2009, retrieved 2009-04-18 
  30. ^"Direct Taxes Code Bill: Government keen on early enactment". The Times Of India. 2012-03-16. 
  31. ^Jain 2006, p. 530
  32. ^Fyzee 2008, p. 1
  33. ^ abFyzee 2008, p. 65
  34. ^"Polygamy no longer progressive, SC told", The Hindu, 8 October 2016 
  35. ^"Centre opposes triple talaq, polygamy among Muslims in Supreme Court", The Financial Express, 7 October 2016 
  36. ^"Muslim women welcome govt's triple talaq stand", The Times of India, 8 October 2016 
  37. ^Lok Sabha passes 2 bills to repeal 245 archaic laws, Eoconomic Times, 19 Dec 2017.


  • Shukla, V.N. (2013). VN Shukla's Constitution of India (12th ed.). Lucknow: Eastern Book Company. ISBN 978-93-5028-982-2. 
  • Basu, Durga Das (2007). Commentary on the Constitution of India (8th ed.). Nagpur: Wadhwa & Co. ISBN 978-81-8038-479-0. 
  • Fyzee, Asaf A.A. (2008). Outlines of Muhammadan Law (5th ed.). Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-569169-6. 
  • Glenn, H. Patrick (2000). Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-876575-4. 
  • Jain, M.P. (2006). Outlines of Indian Legal and Constitutional History (6th ed.). Nagpur: Wadhwa & Co. ISBN 978-81-8038-264-2. 
  • Kane, P.V. History of Dharmaśāstra
  • Shourie, A. (2012). World of Fatwas or the Sharia in action. Harpercollins India. ISBN 978-9350293423
  • Shourie, Arun (2002). Courts and their judgments: Premises, prerequisites, consequences. New Delhi: Rupa. ISBN 978-8171675579

Indian legislation

  • Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, benefits and services) Act, 2016
  • Banking Regulation Act, 1949
  • Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act
  • Depositories Act
  • The Electricity Act, 2003
  • Expenditure Tax Act, 1987
  • Finance Act (India)
  • Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003
  • Foreign Contribution Regulation Act
  • Foreign Exchange Management Act
  • Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999
  • Government Securities Act, 2006
  • Indian Contract Act, 1872
  • Indian Stamp Act, 1899
  • Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016
  • Insurance Act, 1938
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 450 articles, 12 schedules, 101 amendments and 117,369 words.

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