Difference Between References And Bibliography Harvard Style Outline
Harvard is a commonly used method of referencing, which uses the Author-Date system.
Which Harvard style?
Note: Harvard has been adapted to suit many different publication styles. The style used in this guide follows the standard prescribed by the following manual:
Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.This is the official style followed in most Australian Government publications.
Which style does my Faculty or School use?
Some Schools require a different style from the one outlined here. Use the citation style required by your Faculty or School.
Why Reference your sources?
It is important to reference the sources you use for essays and reports, so that the reader can follow your arguments and check your sources. It is essential to correctly acknowledge the author when quoting or using other people’s ideas in your work.
How do I use Harvard?
In-text citations are made like this
Paraphrasing and in-text citations
The point made by an analytic philosopher (O'Connor 1969, p. 32) is that values cannot be justified in this way. However Kneller (1963b, p. 102) insists that the theorist will inevitably be involved in value claims.
Note: Page, chapter or section numbers may be included in the in-text citation if the cited work is long and the information helps the reader locate the relevant information.
When the authors name is mentioned in-text (eg. Kneller in the example above) add year and page numbers only to the in-text reference.
Entries that have the same author and year are noted by adding a, b, c etc to the year, both in-text eg. Kneller (1963b, p. 102) and in the Reference List (see entries in Reference List below).
Direct quotes and in-text citations
‘Having a solid plan as part of research design is essential’ (Hatch 2002, p. 46).
Hatch (2002, p. 46) believes ‘having a solid plan as part of research design is essential.’
Note: Always include page numbers when citing a quotation and enclose the quote in single quotation marks.
Block quotes and in-text citations
Inductive analysis is discussed:
Inductive thinking proceeds from the specific to the general. Understandings are generated by starting with specfic
elements and finding connections among them. To argue inductively is to begin with particular pieces of evidence,
then pull them together into a meaningful whole. Inductive data analysis is a search for patterns of meaningful data so
the general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made (Hatch 2002, p. 161).
Note: Place a quotation of 30 or more words in your work as a free standing block. These quotes are usually indented eg. 5 spaces and are in a smaller font eg. 1 pt smaller than the surrounding text. Do not enclose the quote in quotation marks.
Reference lists, at the end of your paper, are made like this (arrange your list alphabetically by author).
Hatch, JA 2002, Doing qualitative research in education settings. State of , .
Kneller, JP 1963a, Is logical thinking logical? Ponsonby & Partridge, Dubbo.
-----1963b, ‘Thinking and logical interaction’, Brain Logic, vol. 257, no. 4, pp. 54-62.
O'Connor, DJ 1969, An introduction to the philosophy of education, Routledge & Kegan Paul, .
[See the sample Reference list].
DOI = digital object identifier
- A DOI commonly identifies a journal articlebut it can also be found on other publication types including books.
- All DOIs start with 10. and includes numbers and letters. Example: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.08.001
- The DOI provides a permanent internet address for the item making it easy to locate.
- You may search by DOI numbers in Library Search or http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.aut.ac.nz to locate articles.
Doi in your reference list entry:
- Always use the DOI if available (for print or online articles and books).
- No full stop at the end of a DOI.
A new citing format for DOI was introduced by APA in March 2017. The new format includes https and the prefix doi.org: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.11.001
Oppenheimer, D., Zaromb, F., Pomerantz, J. R., Williams, J. C., & Park, Y. S. (2017). Improvement of writing skills during college: A multi-year cross-sectional and longitudinal study of undergraduate writing performance. Assessing Writing, 32, 12–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.11.001
Notes: the following old DOI styles are still acceptable:
If there is no DOI for a online journal article or an e-book, include a URL in your reference.
Use the URL of a journal home page for journal articles without DOI
- Use the URL of the journal homepage, NOT the full URL of the article, in your reference.
Finding a journal homepage URL:
You could do a Google search for the journal title (within double quotation marks), e.g. "new zealand management magazine" to find the journal's homepage
Or, go to the Library database Ulrichsweb, search by the journal title or the journal's ISSN to find the journal record. On the journal record page, find the journal URL for your reference.
Journals without a home page and no DOI:
This can happen to some discontinued journals, or journals archived in an archival database only.
- Use the database home page URL in your reference. See the example in the following section.
Use a URL of a library database:
Resources retrieved from a library database, without a DOI:
If you use electronic resources without DOI, such as an ebook or a data set or a journal without a website, from a library database, You are required to include the URL of the database homepage in your reference.
- Do not use the full URL of the source that you retrieved from a database.
An ebook "Small town sustainability: economic, social,and environmental innovation".
The URL on the ebook page is: