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How To Write A Geography Coursework Conclusion Indicators

PHI332 : The Class : Argument ID : Conclusion Indicators

Topic 3: Conclusion Indicators

You have one other important indicator to help you find and diagram arguments: the conclusion indicator. The conclusion indicator is any synonym for "therefore."

Conclusion indicators

therefore
thus
so
hence
ergo
it follows that
this means that
this shows that
this entails that
this proves that
(and many others)

Usually, a conclusion indicator stands near the beginning of a sentence that is a conclusion. And usually the sentence or sentences before the conclusion indicator are premises. Consider these examples:

1. Fetuses are not persons. Abortion is,, not wrongful killing.

2. Fetuses are not rational agents. Hence abortion is permissible.

3. Fetuses are not social beings. This shows that abortion is not wrong.

Here is my diagram and key for example 1.

Diagram of 1:
Key:
a = Fetuses are not persons.
b = Abortion is not wrongful killing.


To complete this topic successfully, do as many of the following exercises as you find necessary to acquire the relevant skill. You have acquired the relevant skill when your answers to exercises are reliably either the same as the given answers or are alternative answers you can explain and defend:

ASSIGNMENT 1: Exercise 2.3.1


Once you have completed this module you should:

Go on to Topic 4: Independent and Linked Premises
or
Go back to Argument ID

E-mail George Rudebusch at George.Rudebusch@nau.edu
or call (520) 523-7091


1. Conclusions

Describing your results

Describing bar charts

For each bar chart write a few sentences about which are the highest and the lowest bars. Include numbers from the bar chart to make the comparison clearer.

The bar chart below shows mean cross-sectional area at five sampling sites along a stream.

Site 1 has the lowest cross-sectional area (0.5 m2). Site 5 has the highest cross-sectional area (2.3m2). The cross-sectional area at Site 5 is approximately five times larger than the cross-sectional area at Site 1.

Describing line graphs

For each line graph write a few sentences about the trend that you can see. Is it a smooth line or a zig-zag?

The line graph below shows mean wetted perimeter with distance downstream from the source.

Wetted perimeter increases with distance from the source. It is 0.8 m at 0.5 km from the source and 2.4 m at 3.0 km from the source. However wetted perimeter does not rise steadily. Wetted perimeter does not increase much between 1.3 km and 1.8 km of the source, but there is a rapid increase in wetted perimeter between 1.8 km and 2.3 km of the source.

Describing scattergraphs

For each scattergraph write a few sentences about:

  • the direction of the relationship (is it positive, is it negative, or is there no relationship?)
  • the strength of the relationship (is is strong, or is it weak?)
  • if there any anomalous results (points that lie a long way from the best-fit line)?

Explaining your results

Go through each table, chart and graph in turn. Write a few sentences to explain what you have just described. Try to use geographical words as much as you can.

The best explanations will give reasons for the strength of relationships and for any anomalous results.

Example: The scattergraph is a plot of mean cross-sectional area against mean velocity. There is a positive relationship between the two variables. As cross-sectional area increases, velocity also increases. The best-fit line shows that it is a fairly strong relationship. The points are close to best-fit line.

Why? An increase in cross-sectional area means that the river is becoming wider and deeper. A smaller proportion of the water in the river is in contact with the bed and banks. This means that less energy is lost to friction, so the water has more kinetic energy and can move faster.

It is not a perfect relationship because different shaped channels have different wetted perimeters. A square-shaped channel loses less energy to friction than a wide and shallow channel.

Go back to your aims, key questions or hypotheses

In this section you bring the threads together and answer your hypotheses.

Link your results together. For example, try to link results for width, depth and wetted perimeter with results for gradient.

If you have used secondary data, try to link this to the primary data that you collected.

Make sure you mention the evidence from your results that backs up each conclusion.

Finish off with something along the lines of...

"These results help to prove / disprove my initial hypothesis, which stated that... This is because..."

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