1 Maulkis

Essay On Andrew Marvell

  • 1

    Scholars and historians categorize Andrew Marvell as a metaphysical poet. Explain what this means, and discuss an example from his poetry that illustrates your response.

    The 17th century group of English poets known as the “metaphysicals” wrote poems that featured elaborate conceits, which are irregular forms of versification containing extremely philosophical speculations about love, the body, and the soul. Marvell’s poem ‘The Coronet’ is a good example. The versification of the poem is complicated, embedding sonnets of different forms (Shakespearean, Petrarchan) within a larger rhyme scheme. Marvell also employs several different meters (including iambic pentameter, tetrameters, and trimester). This complexity of verse is an artful counterweight to the professed simplicity of the poem’s speaker and his identity as a shepherd.

  • 2

    Discuss the relationship between work and nature that unfolds in Marvell’s ‘Mower’ poems.

    The series of Mower poems follow a cycle based on the four seasons, and each of the four poems depicts the Mower’s changing relationship with his natural environment and his work. His unrequited love for Juliana has wounded him psychologically, and as the poems develop, this romantic alienation causes the Mower to become increasingly withdrawn from tending to the meadows. The Mower's unhappiness culminates in his vengeful tirade against the meadows in the dirge-like final poem of the series, “The Mower’s Song.”

  • 3

    What does Marvell’s Mower think about human ingenuity in “The Mower Against Gardens,” and what does his perspective reflect about Marvell’s society?

    From the Mower’s perspective, gardens are an unnecessary and even wicked manipulation of nature. He bemoans the practice of twisting plants into an improper space simply to satisfy human beings' indulgence. Marvell’s Mower finds beauty in the idea of nature in its pure state. He views the fields and meadows as crucial sources of agrarian production, and therefore far superior to decorative private gardens. Meanwhile, gardens were popular amongst religious and political radicals during Marvell's time, who were also trying to recreate a societal Eden through their reforms. The poem indirectly criticizes the 17th century social elite, who built gardens as displays of wealth and other self-indulgent interests.

  • 4

    Discuss the significance of the appearance of King Charles I in Marvell’s poem “An Horatian Ode Upon Cromwell’s Return From Ireland.”

    When the poem shifts focus from Cromwell to Charles I, the speaker’s tone takes on a tragic quality that subtly implies sympathy for the executed sovereign. The speaker describes the King as a “royal actor” born to face the “tragic scaffold” of his execution as the armed masses look on and clap “their bloody hands.” The speaker also claims King Charles I did “nothing common” or “mean” when facing the scene of his execution, and “bowed his comely head” upon the executioner’s block as if it were a bed. This sympathetic description of the King within a poem intended to praise his opponent, Cromwell, softens Marvell's perspective, and makes his political stance seem vague.

  • 5

    What is the underlying structure of “Upon Appleton House” and how does it guide the movement and development of the poem?

    The thematic content of the poem is reflected by the apparent shifts in perspectives on the estate, which can be summarized as follows: Stanzas 1-10 describe Appleton house itself, Stanzas 11-35 give a history of the house and its time as a priory, Stanzas 36-46 describe its flower gardens and suggest Sir Thomas Fairfax’s military prowess, Stanzas 47- 60 give an account of the meadows, Stanzas 61-81 move to discuss the woods, and Stanzas 82-97 are set at the river and evolve into praise for Mary Fairfax and the family line.

  • 6

    What are some potential allegorical meanings of “The Nymph Complaining for the Death of Her Fawn?”

    A comparison of the poem’s imagery to Marvell’s language in the “Horatian Ode Upon Cromwell’s Return” suggests that the dying fawn may be an allegory for the death of Charles I. The “wanton troopers” that attack the fawn could represent the Army of Oliver Cromwell, which overthrew the monarchy and established a Commonwealth. The images of blood in the “Nymph Complaining” also recall the “bloody hands” of the group of observers that watch Charles I being executed in Marvell’s “Horatian Ode Upon Cromwell’s Return to Ireland.” Moreover, the nymph’s descriptions of the fawn’s calmness and innocence in her garden resonate with Marvell’s depiction of Charles I as he faced his executioner, bowing his head calmly “as upon a bed.” Ultimately, however, these suggestions are faint, and it is difficult to ascertain whether a political-theological allegory is at work in Marvell’s lyric pastoral.

  • 7

    What is the significance of the phrase “vegetable love” in Marvell’s poem, “To His Coy Mistress?”

    The speaker of the poem uses the metaphor of a “vegetable love” to suggest a slow and steady growth that might increase to vast proportions, perhaps encoding a phallic suggestion. Marvell’s use of the phrase is also consistent with his interest in the vitality of the natural world and the relationship between forms of vegetable, animal, and human life. In this particular poem, the idea of "vegetable love" implies that the speaker could praise his lady’s features – eyes, forehead, breasts, and heart - as his love grows slowly and steadily over hundreds and even thousands of years. The speaker states that the Lady clearly deserves such praise, due to her superior stature. Yet he dovetails this claim into an attempt to persuade the Lady to make love now because unlimited time is not available in a human lifespan.

  • 8

    Discuss the importance of God to the group of settlers in “Bermudas.” In your response, cite Biblical passages to which the poem alludes.

    The colonists approaching the Bermudas offer many reasons to praise God for safely guiding their mission “through the wat’ry maze” of the ocean at each step along the way. His protection over “huge sea-monsters” also refers to Psalms 74:13-14, which states, “thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters. Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces.” Marvell’s allusion to the Psalms 74 implies not only that the colonists have received God's protection during their journey across the sea, but also that their settlement of a new Christian community in the Bermudas is a prophetic event that seeks to establish a new Eden on Earth. This poem embodies the mindset of the Puritan colonists and missionaries who made their way west from England and settled the New World. It is also the kernel that eventually led to the idea of manifest destiny and the American expansion across North America.

  • 9

    What is the significance of the image of the roosting bird in stanza 7 of “The Garden?”

    The bird represents the soul of the speaker detached from its bodily casing. The image suggests that during the soul’s time on Earth, it is possible to transcend the limitations of the physical body, as is evident a previous line, which contains a contemplation of “green thought in a green shade.” Yet the soul cannot entirely detach from the physical world until the moment of bodily death, so for the time being, it must remain perched upon the highest reaches that the garden can afford. In a practical context, this image implies that human beings must be weary of keeping their souls pure and worshipping God while on Earth so that they will be able to ascend to Heaven for eternity after death.

  • 10

    What surprising discovery does the speaker of “The Coronet” make when he begins “Thinking,” and what is the significance of this realization?

    The speaker finds the “serpent,” or Satan, hidden in the coils of flowers and plants he intends to use to weave a new crown in honor of Christ. Satan’s presence suggests that no matter how well-intended the shepherd’s efforts may be, he cannot create a physical embodiment of Christian praise that is not at the same time an act of self-aggrandizement. This predicament reveals the depth of Marvell’s elaborate conceit: the poem that the shepherd is “writing” is actually the crown, or coronet, of flowers. Just as the shepherd realizes that his efforts are tainted by mortal sin, Marvell acknowledges that the art of poetry contains sinful seeds of pride and self-valorization, invoking the inherent complications involved in being a devout Christian poet.

  • "Andrew Marvell"

    by

    T.S. Eliot


    [Top]  |  [Introduction]  |  [Anchors]  |  [Text]   |  [Other texts]


    Introduction

    About the work:

    This essay by T.S. Eliot on the poetry style of Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) was first published in the Times Literary Supplement, March 31, 1921. In 1932 it was re-published in Eliot's book Selected Essays.

    Notes:

    Eliot mentions Marvell's The Nymph and the Fawn. This is also known as The Nymph Complaining for the Death of her Fawn.

    The essay ends in the French sentence "C'etait une belle âme, comme on ne fait plus à Londres." A loose translation is "It was a noble soul, as not made anymore in London."

    References:

    T.S. Eliot, Selected Essays: New Edition, (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1950) pp. 251-263

    About the copyright:

    It is my understanding that this work is in the public domain in the U.S. but perhaps not in other countries (particularly in the U.K. and E.U.) Be careful about republication.

    About this webpage:

    URL:
    http://world.std.com/~raparker/exploring/books/andrew_marvell.html
    Revision date (y/m/d h:m:s):
    $Date: 2004/12/03 22:50:31 $
    Publisher:
    Rickard A. Parker    (raparker@theworld.com)

    Hyperlinked table of contents to Eliot's text

    To allow researchers seeking out or creating a citation for a quotation, hyperlinked page numbers (from Selected Essays) have been inserted into the HTML markup of this file.

    PageBegins with the wordsEnds with the words
    251The tercentenaryare inseparable, but
    252they are not the same thing.magnificence in language which Milton
    253used and abused,intense levity of Catullus. Where
    254the wit of MarvellAfter a close approach to the mood of Donne,
    255 ... then worms shall tryEnglish literature just at
    256the moment before the English mind altered;of sameness, with dif-
    257fference; of the general,It only lovèd to be there.
    258And here are five linesis the more serious.
    259So weeps the wounded balsam; sonineteenth century, of the same
    260size as Marvell,brilliant contortions of Milton's sentence!
    261Who from his private gardens, whereAll creatures dwelt, all creatures that had life
    262Or as the primitive forms of allAmong the stars that have a different birth,
    263And ever changing, like a joyless eye,C'etait une belle âme, comme on ne fait plus à Londres.

    Paragraphs are also anchored and can be linked to individually with these anchor names: #pp-1, #pp-2, #pp-3, #pp-4, #pp-5, #pp-6, #pp-7, #pp-8, #pp-9.

    Other useful anchors are: #top, #introduction, #anchors, #text


    The tercentenary of the former member for Hull deserves not only the celebration proposed by that favoured borough, but a little serious reflection upon his writing. That is an act of piety, which is very different from the resurrection of a deceased reputation. Marvell has stood high for some years; his best poems are not very many, and not only must be well known, from the Golden Treasury and the Oxford Book of English Verse, but must also have been enjoyed by numerous readers. His grave needs neither rose nor rue nor laurel; there is no imaginary justice to be done; we may think about him, if there be need for thinking, for our own benefit, not his. To bring the poet back to life--the great, the perennial, task of criticism--is in this case to squeeze the drops of the essence of two or three poems; even confining ourselves to these, we may find some precious liquor unknown to the present age. Not to determine rank, but to isolate this quality, is the critical labour. The fact that of all Marvell's verse, which is itself not a great quantity, the really valuable part consists of a very few poems indicates that the unknown quality of which we speak is probably a literary rather than a personal quality; or, more truly, that it is a quality of a civilization, of a traditional habit of life. A poet like Donne, or like Baudelaire or Laforgue, may almost be considered the inventor of an attitude, a system of feeling or of morals. Donne is difficult to analyse: what appears at one time a curious personal point of view may at another time appear rather the precise concentration of a kind of feeling diffused in the air about him. Donne and his shroud, the shroud and his motive for wearing it, are inseparable, but they are not the same thing. The seventeenth century sometimes seems for more than a moment to gather up and to digest into its art all the experience of the human mind which (from the same point of view) the later centuries seem to have been partly engaged in repudiating. But Donne would have been an individual at any time and place; Marvell's best verse is the product of European, that is to say Latin, culture.

    Out of that high style developed from Marlowe through Jonson (for Shakespeare does not lend himself to these genealogies) the seventeenth century separated two qualities: wit and magniloquence. Neither is as simple or as apprehensible as its name seems to imply, and the two are not in practice antithetical; both are conscious and cultivated, and the mind which cultivates one may cultivate the other. The actual poetry, of Marvell, of Cowley, of Milton, and of others, is a blend in varying proportions. And we must be on guard not to employ the terms with too wide a comprehension; for like the other fluid terms with which literary criticism deals, the meaning alters with the age, and for precision we must rely to some degree upon the literacy and good taste of the reader. The wit of the Caroline poets is not the wit of Shakespeare, and it is not the wit of Dryden, the great master of contempt, or of Pope, the great master of hatred, or of Swift, the great master of disgust. What is meant is some quality which is common to the songs in Comus and Cowley's "Anacreontics" and Marvell's "Horatian Ode." It is more than a technical accomplish meet, or the vocabulary and syntax of an epoch; it is, what we have designated tentatively as wit, a tough reasonableness beneath the slight Iyric grace. You cannot find it in Shelley or Keats or Wordsworth; you cannot find more than an echo of it in Landor; still less in Tennyson or Browning; and among contemporaries Mr. Yeats is an Irishman and Mr. Hardy is a modern Englishman--that is to say, Mr. Hardy is without it and Mr. Yeats is outside of the tradition altogether. On the other hand, as it certainly exists in Lafontaine, there is a large part of it in Gautier. And of the magniloquence, the deliberate exploitation of the possibilities of magnificence in language which Milton used and abused, there is also use and even abuse in the poetry of Baudelaire.

    Wit is not a quality that we are accustomed to associate with "Puritan" literature, with Milton or with Marvell. But if so, we are at fault partly in our conception of wit and partly in our generalizations about the Puritans. And if the wit of Dryden or of Pope is not the only kind of wit in the language the rest is not merely a little merriment or a little levity or a little impropriety or a little epigram. And, on the other hand, the sense in which a man like Marvell is a "Puritan" is restricted. The persons who opposed Charles I and the persons who supported the Commonwealth were not all of the flock of Zeal-of-the-land Busy or the United Grand Junction Ebenezer Temperance Association. Many of them were gentlemen of the time who merely believed, with considerable show of reason, that government by a Parliament of gentlemen was better than government by a Stuart; though they were, to that extent, Liberal Practitioners, they could hardly foresee the tea-meeting and the Dissidence of Dissent. Being men of education and culture, even of travel, some of them were exposed to that spirit of the age which was coming to be the French spirit of the age. This spirit, curiously enough, was quite opposed to the tendencies latent or the forces active in Puritanism; the contest does great damage to the poetry of Milton; Marvell, an active servant of the public, but a lukewarm partisan, and a poet on a smaller scale, is far less injured by it. His line on the statue of Charles II, 'It is such a King as no chisel can mend', may be set off against his criticism of the Great Rebellion: 'Men ... ought and might have trusted the King'. Marvell, therefore, more a man of the century than a Puritan, speaks more clearly and unequivocally with the voice of his literary age than does Milton.

    This voice speaks out uncommonly strong in the Coy Mistress. The theme is one of the great traditional commonplaces of European literature. It is the theme of O mistress mine, of Gather ye rosebuds, of Go, lovely rose; it is in the savage austerity of Lucretius and the intense levity of Catullus. Where the wit of Marvell renews the theme is in the variety and order of the images. In the first of the three paragraphs Marvell plays with a fancy which begins by pleasing and leads to astonishment.

    Had we but world enough and time,
    This coyness, lady, were no crime,
    ... I would
    Love you ten years before the Flood,
    And you should, if you please, refuse
    Till the conversion of the Jews;
    My vegetable love should grow
    Vaster than empires and more slow. ...

    We notice the high speed, the succession of concentrated images, each magnifying the original fancy. When this process has been carried to the end and summed up, the poem turns suddenly with that surprise which has been one of the most important means of poetic effect since Homer:

    But at my back I always hear
    Time's wingèd chariot hurrying near,
    And yonder all before us lie
    Deserts of vast eternity.

    A whole civilization resides in these lines:

    Pallida Mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabernas,
    Regumque turris. ...

    And not only Horace but Catullus himself:

    Nobis, cum semel occidit brevis lux,
    Nox est perpetua una dormienda.

    The verse of Marvell has not the grand reverberation of Catullus's Latin; but the image of Marvell is certainly more comprehensive and penetrates greater depths than Horace's.

    A modern poet, had he reached the height, would very likely have closed on this moral reflection. But the three strophes of Marvell's poem have something like a syllogistic relation to each other. After a close approach to the mood of Donne,

    ... then worms shall try
    That long-preserved virginity ...
    The grave's a fine and private place,
    But none, I think, do there embrace,

    the conclusion,

    Let us roll all our strength and all
    Our sweetness up into one ball,
    And tear our pleasures with rough strife,
    Thorough the iron gates of life.

    It will hardly be denied that this poem contains wit; but it may not be evident that this wit forms the crescendo and diminuendo of a scale of great imaginative power. The wit is not only combined with, but fused into, the imagination. We can easily recognize a witty fancy in the successive images ('my vegetable love', 'till the conversion of the Jews'), but this fancy is not indulged, as it sometimes is by Cowley or Cleveland, for its own sake. It is structural decoration of a serious idea. In this it is superior to the fancy of L'Allegro, Il Penseroso or the lighter and less successful poems of Keats. In fact, this alliance of levity and seriousness (by which the seriousness is intensified) is a characteristic of the sort of wit we are trying to identify. It is found in

    Le squelette était invisible
    Au temps heureux de l'art païen!

    of Gautier, and in the dandysme of Baudelaire and Laforgue. It is in the poem of Catullus which has been quoted, and in the variation by Ben Jonson:

    Cannot we delude the eyes
    Of a few poor household spies?
    'Tis no sin love's fruits to steal;
    But the sweet thefts to reveal,
    To be taken, to be seen,
    These have crimes accounted been.

    It is in Propertius and Ovid. It is a quality of a sophisticated literature; a quality which expands in English literature just at the moment before the English mind altered; it is not a quality which we should expect Puritanism to encourage. When we come to Gray and Collins, the sophistication remains only in the language, and has disappeared from the feeling. Gray and Collins were masters, but they had lost that hold on human values, that firm grasp of human experience, which is a formidable achievement of the Elizabethan and Jacobean poets. This wisdom, cynical perhaps but untired (in Shakespeare, a terrifying clairvoyance), leads toward, and is only completed by, the religious comprehension; it leads to the point of the "Ainsi tout leur a craqué dans la main" of Bouvard and Pecuchet.

    The difference between imagination and fancy, in view of this poetry of wit, is a very narrow one. Obviously, an image which is immediately and unintentionally ridiculous is merely a fancy. In the poem Upon Appleton House, Marvell falls in with one of these undesirable images, describing the attitude of the house toward its master:

    Yet thus the leaden house does sweat,
    And scarce endures the master great;
    But, where he comes, the swelling hall
    Stirs, and the square grows spherical;

    which, whatever its intention, is more absurd than it was intended to be. Marvell also falls into the even commoner error of images which are over-developed or distracting; which support nothing but their own misshapen bodies:

    And now the salmon-fishers moist
    Their leathern boats begin to hoist;
    And, like Antipodes in shoes,
    Have shod their heads in their canoes.

    Of this sort of image a choice collection may be found in Johnson's Life of Cowley. But the images in the Coy Mistress are not only witty, but satisfy the elucidation of Imagination given by Coleridge:

    This power ... reveals itself in the balance or reconcilement of opposite or discordant qualities: of sameness, with difference; of the general, with the concrete; the idea with the image; the individual with the representative; the sense of novelty and freshness with old and familiar objects, a more than usual state of emotion with more than usual order; judgment ever awake and steady self-possession with enthusiasm and feeling profound or vehement. ...

    Coleridge's statement applies also to the following verses, which are selected because of their similarity, and because they illustrate the marked caesura which Marvell often introduces in a sort line:

    The tawny mowers enter next
    Who seem like Israelites to be
    Walking on foot through a green sea ...,

    And now the meadows fresher dyed,
    Whose grass, with moister colour dashed,
    Seems as green silks but newly washed ...

    He hangs in shades the orange bright,
    Like golden lamps in a green night ...
    Annihilating all that's made
    To a green thought in a green shade ...
    Had it lived long, it would have been
    Lilies without, roses within.

    The whole poem, from which the last of these quotations is drawn (The Nymph and the Fawn), is built upon a very slight foundation, and we can imagine what some of our modern practitioners of slight themes would have made of it. But we need not descend to an invidious contemporaneity to point the difference. Here are six lines from The Nymph and the Fawn:

    I have a garden of my own,
    But so with roses overgrown
    And lilies, that you would it guess
    To be a little wilderness;
    And all the spring-time of the year
    It only lovèd to be there.

    And here are five lines from The Nymph's Song to Hylas in the Life and Death of Jason, by William Morris:

    I know a little garden close
    Set thick with lily and red rose.
    Where I would wander if I might
    From dewy dawn to dewy night,
    And have one with me wandering.

    So far the resemblance is more striking than the difference, although we might just notice the vagueness of allusion in the last line to some indefinite person, form, or phantom, compared with the more explicit reference of emotion to object which we should expect from Marvell. But in the latter part of the poem Morris divaricates widely:

    Yet tottering as I am, and weak,
    Still have I left a little breath
    To seek within the jaws of death
    An entrance to that happy place;
    To seek the unforgotten face
    Once seen, once kissed, once reft from me
    Anigh the murmuring of the sea.

    Here the resemblance, if there is any, is to the latter part of The Coy Mistress. As for the difference, it could not be more pronounced. The effect of Morris's charming poem depends upon the mistiness of the feeling and the vagueness of its object; the effect of Marvell's upon its bright, hard precision. And this precision is not due to the fact that Marvell is concerned with cruder or simpler or more carnal emotions. The emotion of Morris is not more refined or more spiritual; it is merely more vague: if anyone doubts whether the more refined or spiritual emotion can be precise, he should study the treatment of the varieties of discarnate emotion in the Paradiso. A curious result of the comparison of Morris's poem with Marvell's is that the former, though it appears to be more serious, is found to be the slighter; and Marvell's Nymph and the Fawn, appearing more slight, is the more serious.

    So weeps the wounded balsam; so
    The holy frankincense doth flow;
    The brotherless Heliades
    Melt in such amber tears as these.

    These verses have the suggestiveness of true poetry; and the verses of Morris, which are nothing if not an attempt to suggest, really suggest nothing; and we are inclined to infer that the suggestiveness is the aura around a bright clear centre, that you cannot have the aura alone. The day-dreamy feeling of Morris is essentially a slight thing; Marvell takes a slight affair, the feeling of a girl for her pet, and gives it a connection with that inexhaustible and terrible nebula of emotion which surrounds all our exact and practical passions and mingles with them. Again, Marvell does this in a poem which, because of its formal pastoral machinery, may appear a trifling object:
    Clorinda. Near this, a fountain's liquid bell
    Tinkles within the concave shell.

    Damon. Might a soul bathe there and be clean,
    Or slake its drought ?
    where we find that a metaphor has suddenly rapt us to the image of spiritual purgation. There is here the element of surprise, as when Villon says:

    Necessité faict gens mesprendre
    Et faim saillir le loup des boys,

    the surprise which Poe considered of the highest importance, and also the restraint and quietness of tone which makes the surprise possible. And in the verses of Marvell which have been quoted there is the making the familiar strange, and the strange familiar, which Coleridge attributed to good poetry.

    The effort to construct a dream world, which alters English poetry so greatly in the nineteenth century, a dream world utterly different from the visionary realities of the Vita Nuova or of the poetry of Dante's contemporaries, is a problem of which various explanations may no doubt be found; in any case, the result makes a poet of the nineteenth century, of the same size as Marvell, a more trivial and less serious figure. Marvell is no greater personality than William Morris, but he had something much more solid behind him: he had the vast and penetrating influence of Ben Jonson. Jonson never wrote anything purer than Marvell's Horatian Ode; this ode has that same quality of wit which was diffused over the whole Elizabethan product and concentrated in the work of Jonson. And, as was said before, this wit which pervades the poetry of Marvell is more Latin, more refined, than anything that succeeded it. The great danger, as well as the greatest interest and excitement, of English prose and verse, compared with French, is that it permits and justifies an exaggeration of particular qualities to the exclusion of others Dryden was great in wit, as Milton in magniloquence; but the former, by isolating this quality and making it by itself into great poetry, and the latter, by coming to dispense with it altogether, may perhaps have injured the language. In Dryden wit becomes almost fun, and thereby loses some contact with reality; becomes pure fun, which French wit almost never is.

    Oft he seems to hide his face,
    But unexpectedly returns,
    And to his faithful champion hath in place
    Bore witness gloriously; whence Gaza mourns,
    And all that hand them to resist
    His uncontrollable intent.

    How oddly the sharp Dantesque phrase 'whence Gaza mourns' springs out from the brilliant contortions of Milton's sentence!

    Who from his private gardens, where
    He lived reserved and austere,
    (As if his highest plot
    To plant the bergamot)

    Could by industrious valour climb
    To ruin the great work of Time,
    And cast the kingdoms old
    Into another mold;
    The Pict no shelter now shall find
    Within his parti-coloured mind,
    But, from this valour sad,
    Shrink underneath the plaid:

    There is here an equipoise, a balance and proportion of tones, which, while it cannot raise Marvell to the level of Dryden or Milton, extorts an approval which these poets do not receive from us, and bestows a pleasure at least different in kind from any they can often give. It is what makes Marvell a classic; or classic in a sense in which Gray and Collins are not; for the latter, with all their accredited purity, are comparatively poor in shades of feeling to contrast and unite.

    We are baffled in the attempt to translate the quality indicated by the dim and antiquated term wit into the equally unsatisfactory nomenclature of our own time. Even Cowley is only able to define it by negatives:

    Comely in thousand shapes appears;
    Yonder we saw it plain; and here 'tis now,
    Like spirits in a place, we know not how.

    It has passed out of our critical coinage altogether, and no new term has been struck to replace it; the quality seldom exists, and is never recognized.

    In a true piece of Wit all things must be
    Yet all things there agree;
    As in the Ark, join'd without force or strife,
    All creatures dwelt, all creatures that had life
    Or as the primitive forms of all
    (If we compare great things with small)
    Which, without discord or confusion, lie
    In that strange mirror of the Deity.

    So far Cowley has spoken well. But if we are to attempt even no more than Cowley, we, placed in a retrospective attitude, must risk much more than anxious generalizations. With our eye still on Marvell, we can say that wit is not erudition; it is sometimes stifled by erudition, as in much of Milton. It is not cynicism, though it has a kind of toughness which may be confused with cynicism by the tender-minded. It is confused with erudition because it belongs to an educated mind, rich in generations of experience; and it is confused with cynicism because it implies a constant inspection and criticism of experience. It involves, probably, a recognition, implicit in the expression of every experience, of other kinds of experience which are possible, which we find as clearly in the greatest as in poets like Marvell. Such a general statement may seem to take us a long way from The Nymph and the Fawn, or even from the "Horatian Ode"; but it is perhaps justified by the desire to account for that precise taste of Marvell's which finds for him the proper degree of seriousness for every subject which he treats. His errors of taste, when he trespasses, are not sins against this virtue; they are conceits, distended metaphors and similes, but they never consist in taking a subject too seriously or too lightly. This virtue of wit is not a peculiar quality of minor poets, or of the minor poets of one age or of one school; it is an intellectual quality which perhaps only becomes noticeable by itself, in the work of lesser poets. Furthermore, it is absent from the work of Wordsworth, Shelley, and Keats, on whose poetry nineteenth-century criticism has unconsciously been based. To the best of their poetry wit is irrelevant:

    Art thou pale for weariness
    Of climbing heaven and gazing on the earth,
    Wandering companionless
    Among the stars that have a different birth,
    And ever changing, like a joyless eye,
    That finds no object worth its constancy?

    We should find it difficult to draw any useful comparison between these lines of Shelley and anything by Marvell. But later poets, who would have been the better for Marvell's quality, were without it; even Browning seems oddly immature, in some way, beside Marvell. And nowadays we find occasionally good irony, or satire, which lack wit's internal equilibrium, because their voices are essentially protests against some outside sentimentality or stupidity; or we find serious poets who seem afraid of acquiring wit, lest they lose intensity. The quality which Marvell had, this modest and certainly impersonal virtue--whether we call it wit or reason, or even urbanity--we have patently failed to define. By whatever name we call it, and however we define that name, it is something precious and needed and apparently extinct; it is what should preserve the reputation of Marvell. C'etait une belle âme, comme on ne fait plus à Londres.

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