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Case Study Diabetes Mellitus Scribd Reviews

 

DIABETES MELLITUS

DISEASE HISTORY

Diabetes is first recorded in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written around1425. In 1675,

Thomas Willis

added the word

mellitus

, from the

Latin

meaning "honey", areference to the sweet taste of the urine. This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by theancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians. In 1776, Matthew Dobsonconfirmed that the sweet taste was because of an excess of a kind of sugar in the urine andblood of people with diabetes.Diabetes mellitus is a chronic insulin deficiency or resistance, diabetes mellitus ischaracterized by disturbances of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. It is a major riskfactor for myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, renal failure, peripheral vascular disease. It is also the leading cause of blindness in adults. The cause of DM is unknown Though there are predisposing factors as follows:1.) Stress- it stimulates secretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine and glucocorticoids,these hormones elevate glucose levels by glycogenesis and glucogenesis2.) Heredity- it is strongly associated with Type II DM3.) Obesity- Adipose tissues are resistant to insulin, therefore, glucose uptake by the cellsis poor 4.) Viral Infection- Increase risk to autoimmune disorders that may affect the pancreas5.) Autoimmunity- it is more associated with Type II DM, This is because it is the childrenwho are more prone to viral infection

DEFINITION

The term

iabetes

, without qualification, usually refers to diabetes mellitus, whichroughly translates to excessive sweet urine (known as "glycosuria"). Several rare conditions arealso named diabetes. The most common of these is diabetes insipidus in which large amountsof urine are produced (polyuria), which is not sweet (insipidus meaning "without taste" in Latin).The term "type 1 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including childhood-onsetdiabetes, juvenile diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Likewise, the term"type 2 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including adult-onset diabetes, obesity-related diabetes, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Beyond these twotypes, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature. Various sources have defined "type 3diabetes" as: gestational diabetes insulin-resistant type 1 diabetes (or "double diabetes"), type 2

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