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Annotated Bibliography Example Introduction

What's an Annotated Bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is an alphabetical reference list, with a brief description after each citation.Your professor might assign an annotated bibliography to teach you how to conduct research in your discipline and to widen your understanding of a topic. Some instructors ask you to create annotated bibliographies in preparation for research essays.

Please note that your professors may have slightly different requirements for your assignments, so pay attention to what is communicated throughout your course.  You may be required to identify the authors' research methods and theoretical frameworks.  Some annotated bibliographies are descriptive, while others include analysis or criticism in each annotation. 

Click any of the blue tabs to view example annotations and citations from that style guide.  If you want to cite a type of publication that isn't provided here, check the full style guide.  Links and location information are below.


Style Guides Quick Links

Any essay or article needs to give information for readers, so they can see where the author got the ideas and facts.  Different subjects require slightly different formats for presenting that information.  To make sure you're following the rules for your discipline, check a style guide.  Here are a few:

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA Manual) kept behind the Circulation counter of the John E. Robbins Library: Reserve BF76.7.A46.  Have a look at OWL Purdue online.

BU has access to the Chicago Manual of Style online here.

Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations5th Edition is on reserve behind the library circulation desk: LB2369. T8 1987


RefWorks —Creating Bibliographies and Reference Lists for You!

RefWorks is a program that acts like a holding tank for information about articles and books you've read.  When you find an article to include in your reference list, print or email it as you would normally, but you can also send the citation information to RefWorks.

When you're done searching and sending, have RefWorks create a bibliography from the list of articles--you can do this in Word (Window or Mac), HTML, or OpenOffice.  Check this bibliography against a style guide, and insert your annotations.  More information about RefWorks is available here, by clicking the blue RefWorks tab (above), or else click to go directly to RefWorks.


Henderson, R., & Honan, E. (2008). Digital literacies in two low socioeconomic classrooms: Snapshots of practice. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, (7)2, 85-98.

Provides snapshots of digital practices in two middle-level classrooms within low socioeconomic suburbs in Australia during one school term. Ethnographic research techniques were used to investigate (1) teachers' pedagogical approaches to using digital literacy practices with low-income students; (2) students' access to digital technologies at home and at school; and (3) how home literate practices compared to the practices valued in school. Results underscore the need to disrupt teachers' deficit views of these students' home digital literacies so that school practices can be built upon the knowledge and literacies students already have. 

(Beach et al., 2009)

Frazen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008). The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10, 150-161. doi: 10.1177/1098300708316260.

This study examined the effectiveness of a school-wide PBS recess intervention across three grades—2nd, 3rd, and 4th.  The intervention included a token economy system for following five operationally defined, positively stated school rules.  A multiple baseline design across grades was used to determine the effectiveness of the swPBS recess intervention on inappropriate behaviors.  Intervention was implemented across the three grades at staggered times.  When intervention was implemented, inappropriate behavior demonstrated a change in level for all grades and a decrease in variability for one grade (2nd). Trend was relatively stable across all phases for two classrooms and a slight increasing trend was observed during baseline for the 4th grade that stabilized once the intervention was implemented. Experimental control was demonstrated when (1) baseline behavior remained consistent despite the implementation of intervention in other grades, (2) only when intervention was implemented was a change in behavior level observed, and (3) experimental control was demonstrated at three distinct points. 

(McCoy, 2015)

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