Essay About Society Problems In Iran
By Sara Rajabova
Alongside many other economic problems that inflict great economic challenges on Iran, the rising unemployment problem in the country is adding fuel to the fire.
The rate of unemployment in Iran is continuing to rise despite the efforts of the government. Iranian President Hassan Rouhani said after he elected as a president that job creation is the most significant issue in the future of the country's economy. However, new government efforts couldn’t be considered as too effective taking into account recent situation.
The latest report from the Iranian Statistical Center, released on January 1 said Iran’s unemployment rate during the autumn (Sept. 22-Dec. 22) stood at 10.5 percent, while it was 9.5 percent in summer (June 21 – Sept. 21). The unemployment rate among Iranians aged over 10 years in the mentioned three-month period was 0.2 percent more than the same period of time in the preceding year.
The figure also indicates one percent increase compared to the preceding quarter’s unemployment rate (June 21 – Sept. 21). About 2.52 million of Iranians above 10 years old were jobless in the mentioned three-month period (ended on December 22).
While considering the unemployment problem in Iran, it should be noted that the rate was high among women comparing to men that has social reasons. Unemployment among men was around 8.7, in the time when the rate among women was 20.3 percent during the same period.
Also, based on international standards, Iran is currently struggling with a crisis in regards to the unemployment rate of the youth (under the age of 30). According to the Iranian media, at least 1.2 million of over 2.5 million unemployed people in Iran are college graduates.
Earlier, Iran’s Cooperative, Labor and Welfare Minister Ali Rabiei warned that if the current trend continues, the number of jobless people in Islamic Republic will reach 10 million in 2021.
Rabiei called on the lawmakers to help resolve the unemployment crisis through approving a bill to establish a special employment fund.
Reasons triggering unemployment in Iran
There are several reasons for the rising unemployment rate in Iran, which requires immediate steps.
Many in Iran, as well as the incumbent government blame the previous government’s mismanagement for the rising unemployment in the country. The experts said lack of appropriate policy and accurate planning not only has caused business owners to face bankruptcy, but also has endangered the living of ordinary people and impeded life for the low-income people in the society.
Some believe that the sanctions imposed on the country over its nuclear energy program have played minor role in the country’s economic disturbance. They say the major reasons for the current situation in Iran was lack of strategic policies, incorrect implementation of the law, absence of common sense, deterioration of some governmental structures and some other reasons.
Iran’s President Hassan Rouhani has also put the fault on the previous government, saying nearly no job was created in the country between 2006 and 2011.
He recently noted that although in the decade ending 2011 the country’s foreign currency income was great, but nearly no job was created in the country between 2006 and 2011, Iran’s media reported. Rouhani added that this issue shows that oil revenues are not good solutions to country’s problems.
Another reason for the rising unemployment, especially among the young people is that some part of them couldn’t find job fitting their wish and capabilities.
Rabiei said earlier that there are two million job opportunities in the country that no one is willing to take. He explained that the college graduates' unwillingness to do certain jobs has given the opportunity to foreign immigrants to take the jobs.
Kamran Dadkhah, a professor of economics at Northeastern University in Boston city of Massachusetts State, explained the high unemployment in Iran with the decline investment in country.
Noting the necessity of investments for opening jobs, Dadkhah told AzerNews that due to past ill-conceived policies including confiscation of property, government heavy intervention in the economy, business activities of government organizations and the Revolutionary Guard, and the general atmosphere of insecurity for capital, private sector investment has dwindled and many industries have closed down in recent years.
He said the situation has got worse due to sanctions imposed on Iran as a result of its nuclear activities that have also prohibited foreign investment and technology to help Iran’s economy to create jobs.
Dadkhah further added that on the other hand, the oil revenues which have been the main source of government income and government development expenditures have dwindled in recent years, which led to decline in the government investment.
Also, one of the reasons that significantly impact the general figure on unemployment rate is the unemployment among women and government and society’s unwillingness to pay more attention to this issue. Women's unemployment is one of the most important socioeconomic issues Iran is facing as women labor force participation rate in the Islamic Republic is far below advanced countries.
World Economic Forum's Global Gender Gap Report 2014 indicates that there was slight improvement in the level of participation of women in the workforce in the past year as compared to 2013. Iran continues to have one of the lowest rates of female representation in the labor market globally, with women constituting only 17 percent of the labor force. According to the report Iran ranks 137 of 142 countries assessed.
Many government officials believe that due to the high rate of unemployment amongst men, women should automatically be given second priority when applying for a job. In addition, the comprehensive population and family excellence plan presented to the parliament, further undermines the participation of women in the workforce. It introduces a hierarchy of hiring by both public and private institutions. The plan states that in all governmental and non-governmental sectors, the employment is to be assigned first to men with children, then to married men without children and only then to women with children. The plan excludes unmarried women from the selection process.
Though Rouhani’s administration has stated its opposition to the plan, many high-ranking Iranian officials have defended it.
Solution to the unemployment challenge
Iran possesses one of the youngest population in the world with approximately half of its population being under 35 years old. The experts said if major tax and constitutional reforms are not undertaken, unemployment will continue to rise, depicting a somber future for the next working age generation. Therefore, it is needed to take more deceive measures to tackle this problem.
Rabiei earlier said his Ministry has initiated a plan jointly with the planning department of the presidential office to create 500,000 jobs by the year end, Iranian media reported. He also said about three billion dollars will be invested in the job creation plans.
Previously, President Rouhani said 190,000 new jobs are projected to be created by the end of the current Iranian year.
Speaking on the ways out of the unemployment crisis, Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Iran’s Expediency Council Chairman has recently suggested bank cash to be spent on campaign against unemployment.
Rafsanjani said if the bank cash is spent properly and in favor of economy and development, it will help greatly push forward economy and deal with unemployment.
He noted using domestic asset and the capacity of foreign policy will be the main pre-condition for employment and production.Rafsanjani added that taking cooperatives' role in economy for granted and failure to implement general policies of Article 44 of the Constitution properly will be tantamount to rising unemployment rate.
Furthermore, Dadkhah noted that although the Rouhani government has promised many of these actions, it seems to have been slow in implementing them.
He said if the policy of increasing the rate of growth of population succeeds, then the employment condition would be even worse in the decades to come.
He stressed that in order to help create jobs the government has to create an environment of security for capital, investment, and entrepreneurship.
Dadkhah also noted that Iran should bridge the gaps with the world powers over its disputed nuclear energy program. “Also it should come to terms with the P5+1 so the sanctions are lifted.”
“Government entities, particularly the Revolutionary Guard, should leave business activities. Foreign investment and technology in petroleum and other industries should be encouraged. Finally, once the sanctions are lifted and Iran can export more oil and access its proceeds, the government should devote all the proceeds to investment or save it in a national fund for future investment,” Dadkhah said.
Sara Rajabova is AzerNews’ staff journalist, follow her on Twitter: @SaraRajabova
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The culture of Iran (Persian: فرهنگ یران, translit. Farhang-e Irān), also known as culture of Persia, is one of the oldest in the world. Owing to its dominant geo-political position and culture in the world, Iran has directly influenced cultures and peoples as far away as Italy, Macedonia, and Greece to the West, Russia to the North, the Arabian Peninsula to the South, and South and East Asia to the East. Thus an eclectic cultural elasticity has been said to be one of the key defining characteristics of the Persian spirit and a clue to its historical longevity. Furthermore, Iran's culture has manifested itself in several facets throughout the history of Iran as well as the Caucasus, Central Asia, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia.
The article uses the words Persian and Iranian interchangeably, sometimes referring to the language and its speakers, and other times referring to the name of pre-20th century Iran, a nomenclature which survives from western explorers and orientalists. They are not the same and the cultures of the peoples of Greater Persia are the focus of this article.
Main article: Persian art
Iran has one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stonemasonry. There is also a very vibrant Iranian modern and contemporary art scene.
Iranian art has gone through numerous phases. The unique aesthetics of Iran is evident from the Achaemenid reliefs in Persepolis to the mosaic paintings of Bishapur. The Islamic era brought drastic changes to the styles and practice of the arts, each dynasty with its own particular foci. The Qajarid era was the last stage of classical Persian art, before modernism was imported and suffused into elements of traditionalist schools of aesthetics.
Language and literature
Main article: Persian literature
See also: Persian language and Persian literature in Western culture
Several languages are spoken in different regions of Iran. The predominant language and national language is Persian, which is spoken across the country. Azerbaijani is spoken primarily and widely in the northwest, Kurdish primarily in the west as well as Luri, Mazandarani and Gilaki at the Caspian Sea coastal regions, Arabic primarily in the Persian Gulf coastal regions, Balochi primarily in the desolate and remote far southeast, and Turkmen primarily in northern border regions. Smaller languages spread in other regions notably include Talysh, Georgian, Armenian, Assyrian, and Circassian, amongst others.
Persian literature inspired Goethe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and many others, and it has been often dubbed as a most worthy language to serve as a conduit for poetry. Dialects of Persian are sporadically spoken throughout the region from China to Syria to Russia, though mainly in the Iranian Plateau.
Contemporary Iranian literature is influenced by classical Persian poetry, but also reflects the particularities of modern-day Iran, through writers such as Houshang Moradi-Kermani, the most translated modern Iranian author, and poet Ahmad Shamlou.
Religion in Iran
See also: Religion and culture in ancient Iran
Zoroastrianism was the national faith of Iran for more than a millennium before the Arab conquest. It has had an immense influence on Iranian philosophy, culture and art after the people of Iran converted to Islam.
Today of the 98% of Muslims living in Iran, around 89% are Shi’a and only around 9% are Sunni.This is quite the opposite trend of the percentage distribution of Shi’a to Sunni Islam followers in the rest of the Muslim population from state to state (primarily in the Middle East) and throughout the rest of the world.
Followers of the Baha'i faith comprise the largest non-Muslim minority in Iran. Followers of the Baha'i faith are scattered throughout small communities in Iran, although there seems to be a large population of people who follow the Baha'i faith in Tehran. Most of the Baha'i are of Persian descent, although there seem to be many among the Azerbaijani and Kurdish people. The Baha'i are severely persecuted.
Followers of the Christian faith comprise around 250,000 Armenians, around 32,000 Assyrians, and a small number of Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Protestant Iranians that have been converted by missionaries in earlier centuries. Thus, Christians that live in Iran are primarily descendants of indigenous Christians that were converted during the 19th and 20th centuries. Judaism is an officially recognized faith in Iran, and in spite of the hostilities between Iran and Israel over the Palestinian issue, the millennia old Jewish community in Iran enjoys the right to practice their religion freely as well as a dedicated seat in parliament to a representative member of their faith. In addition to Christianity and Judaism, Zoroastrianism is another officially recognized religion in Iran, although followers of this faith do not hold a large population in Iran. In addition, although there have been isolated incidences of prejudice against Zoroastrians, most followers of this faith have not been persecuted for being followers of this faith.
Holidays in Iran
See also: Holidays in Iran, Iranian Calendar, and List of festivals in Iran
The Persian year begins in the vernal equinox: if the astronomical vernal equinox comes before noon, then the present day is the first day of the Persian year. If the equinox falls after noon, then the next day is the official first day of the Persian year. The Persian Calendar, which is the official calendar of Iran, is a solar calendar with a starting point that is the same as the Islamic calendar. According to the Iran Labor Code, Friday is the weekly day of rest. Government official working hours are from Saturday to Wednesday (from 8 am to 4 pm).
Although the date of certain holidays in Iran are not exact (due to the calendar system they use, most of these holidays are around the same time), some of the major public holidays in Iran include Oil Nationalization Day (20 March), Nowrooz—which is the Iranian equivalent of New Years (20 March), the Prophet’s Birthday and Imam Sadeq (4 June), and the Death of Imam Khomeini (5 June). Additional holidays include The Anniversary of the Uprising Against the Shah (30 January), Ashoura (11 February), Victory of the 1979 Islamic Revolution (2 April), Sizdah-Bedar—Public Outing Day to end Nowrooz (1 April), and Islamic Republic Day (20 January).
See also: Persian wedding
There are two stages in a typical wedding ritual in Iran. Usually both phases take place in one day. The first stage is known as "Aghd", which is basically the legal component of marriage in Iran. In this process, the Bride and Groom as well as their respective guardians sign a marriage contract. This phase usually takes place in the bride's home. After this legal process is over, the second phase, "Jashn-e Aroosi" takes place. In this step, which is basically the wedding reception, where actual feasts and celebrations are held, typically lasts from about 3–7 days. The ceremony takes place in a decorated room with flowers and a beautifully decorated spread on the floor. This spread is typically passed down from mother to daughter and is composed of very nice fabric such as "Termeh" (cashmere), "Atlas" (gold embroidered satin), or "Abrisham" (silk).
Items are placed on this spread: a Mirror (of fate), two Candelabras (representing the bride and groom and their bright future), a tray of seven multi-colored herbs and spices (including poppy seeds, wild rice, angelica, salt, nigella seeds, black tea, and frankincense). These herbs and spices play specific roles ranging from breaking spells and witchcraft, to blinding the evil eye, to burning evil spirits. In addition to these herbs/spices, a special baked and decorated flatbread, a basket of decorated eggs, decorated almonds, walnuts and hazelnuts (in their shell to represent fertility), a basket of pomegranates/apples (for a joyous future as these fruits are considered divine), a cup of rose water (from special Persian roses)—which helps perfume the air, a bowl made out of sugar (apparently to sweeten life for the newlywed couple), and a brazier holding burning coals and sprinkled with wild rue (as a way to keep the evil eye away and to purify the wedding ritual) are placed on the spread as well. Finally, there are additional items that must be placed on the spread, including a bowl of gold coins (to represent wealth and prosperity), a scarf/shawl made of silk/fine fabric (to be held over the bride and groom’s head at certain points in the ceremony), two sugar cones—which are ground above the bride and groom's head, thus symbolizing sweetness/happiness, a cup of honey (to sweeten life), a needle and seven strands of colored thread (the shawl that is held above the bride and groom’s head is sewn together with the string throughout the ceremony), and a copy of the couple’s Holy Book (other religions require different texts); but all of these books symbolize God's blessing for the couple. An early age in marriage—especially for brides—is a long documented feature of marriage in Iran. While the people of Iran have been trying to legally change this practice by implementing a higher minimum in marriage, there have been countless blocks to such an attempt. Although the average age of women being married has increased by about five years in the past couple decades, young girls being married is still common feature of marriage in Iran—even though there is an article in the Iranian Civil Code that forbid the marriage of women younger than 15 years of age and males younger than 18 years of age.
In Iran, Persian rugs have always been a vital part of the Persian culture.
Iranians were some of the first people in history to weave carpets. First deriving from the notion of basic need, the Persian rug started out as a simple/pure weave of fabric that helped nomadic people living in ancient Iran stay warm from the cold, damp ground. As time progressed, the complexity and beauty of rugs increased to a point where rugs are now bought as decorative pieces. Because of the long history of fine silk and wool rug weaving in Iran, Persian rugs are world-renowned as some of the most beautiful, intricately designed rugs available. Around various places in Iran, rugs seem to be some of the most prized possessions of the local people. Iran currently produces more rugs and carpets than all other countries in the world put together.
Main article: Cinema of Iran
With 300 international awards in the past 10 years, Iranian films continue to be celebrated worldwide. The best known Persian directors are Abbas Kiarostami, Majid Majidi, Jafar Panahi and Asghar Farhadi.
Main article: Iranian modern and contemporary art
See also: List of Iranian painters
There is a resurgence of interest in Iranian contemporary artists and in artists from the larger Iranian diaspora. Key notables include Shirin Aliabadi, Mohammed Ehsai, Ramin Haerizadeh, Rokni Haerizadeh, Golnaz Fathi, Monir Shahroudy Farmanfarmaian, Parastou Forouhar, Pouran Jinchi, Farhad Moshiri, Shirin Neshat, Parviz Tanavoli, Y. Z. Kami, and Charles Hossein Zenderoudi.
Main articles: Music of Iran and Persian traditional music
See also: List of Iranian musicians and singers
The music of Persia dates to before the days of Barbod in the royal Sassanid courts. This is where many music cultures trace their distant origins.
Main article: Iranian architecture
There are countless numbers of traditional tea-houses (chai khooneh) throughout Iran, and each province features its own unique cultural presentation of this ancient tradition. However, there are certain traits which are common to all tea-houses, especially the most visible aspects, strong chai (tea) and the ever-present ghalyan hookah. Almost all tea-houses serve baqleh, steam boiled fava beans (in the pod), served with salt and vinegar, as well as a variety of desserts and pastries. Many tea-houses also serve full meals, typically a variety of kebabs, as well as regional specialties.
Main article: Persian gardens
The Persian garden was designed as a reflection of paradise on earth; the word "garden" itself coming from Persian roots. The special place of the garden in the Iranian heart can be seen in their architecture, in the ruins of Iran, and in their paintings.
Main article: Iranian cuisine
Cuisine in Iran is considered to be one of the most ancient forms of cuisine around the world. Bread is arguably the most important food in Iran, with a large variety of different bread, some of the most popular of which include: nan and hamir, which are baked in large clay ovens (also called "tenurs"). In Iranian cuisine, there are many dishes that are made from dairy products. One of the most popular of which includes yoghurt ("mast")—which has a specific fermentation process that is widely put to use amongst most Iranians. In addition, mast is used to make soup and is vital in the production of oil. In addition to these dairy products, Iranian cuisine involves a lot of dishes cooked from rice. Some popular rice dishes include boiled rice with a variety of ingredients such as meats, vegetables, and seasonings ("plov") including dishes like chelo-horesh, shish kebab with rice, chelo-kebab, rice with lamb, meatballs with rice, and kofte (plain boiled rice). In addition, Iranian cuisine is famous for its sweets. One of the most famous of which includes "baklava" with almonds, cardamom, and egg yolks. Iranian sweets typically involve the use of honey, cinnamon, lime juice, and sprouted wheat grain. One very popular dessert drink in Iran, "sherbet sharbat-portagal", is made from a mixture of orange peel and orange juice boiled in thin sugar syrup and diluted with rose water. Just like the people of many Middle Eastern countries the most preferred drink of the people of Iran is tea (without milk) or "kakhve-khana".
Main article: Sport in Iran
- The game of Polo originated with Iranian tribes in ancient times and was regularly seen throughout the country until the revolution of 1979 where it became associated with the monarchy. It continues to be played, but only in rural areas and discreetly. Recently, as of 2005, it has been acquiring an increasingly higher profile. In March 2006, there was a highly publicised tournament and all significant matches are now televised.
- The Iranian Zoor Khaneh
Women in Persian culture
Main article: Iranian women
Since the 1979 Revolution, Iranian women have had more opportunities in some areas and more restrictions in others. One of the striking features of the Revolution was the large scale participation of women from traditional backgrounds in demonstrations leading up to the overthrow of the monarchy. The Iranian women who had gained confidence and higher education during the Pahlavi era participated in demonstrations against the Shah to topple the monarchy. The culture of education for women was established by the time of revolution so that even after the revolution, large numbers of women entered civil service and higher education, and in 1996 fourteen women were elected to the Islamic Consultative Assembly. In 2003, Iran's first woman judge during the Pahlavi era, Shirin Ebadi, won the Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts in promoting human rights.
According to a UNESCO world survey, at the primary level of enrollment Iran has the highest female to male ratio in the world among sovereign nations, with a female to male ratio of 1.22 : 1.00. By 1999, Iran had 140 female publishers, enough to hold an exhibition of books and magazines published by women. As of 2005, 65% of Iran's university students and 43% of its salaried workers were women. and as of early 2007 nearly 70% of Iran's science and engineering students are women. This has led to many female school and university graduates being under-utilized. This is beginning to have an effect on Iranian society and was a contributing factor to protests by Iranian youth.
During recent decades, Iranian women have had significant presence in Iran's scientific movement, art movement, literary new wave and contemporary Iranian cinema. Women account for 60% of all students in the natural sciences, including one in five PhD students.
Main article: Iranian festivals
Iranians celebrate the following days based on a solar calendar, in addition to important religious days of Islamic and Shia calendars, which are based on a lunar calendar.
Traditional cultural inheritors of the old Persia
Main article: Persianate society
Like the Persian carpet that exhibits numerous colors and forms in a dazzling display of warmth and creativity, Persian culture is the glue that bonds the peoples of western and central Asia. The Caucasus and Central Asia "occupy an important place in the historical geography of Persian civilization. Much of the region was included in the Pre-Islamic Persian empires, and many of its ancient peoples either belonged to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European peoples (e.g. Medes and Soghdians), or were in close cultural contact with them (e.g. the Armenians). In the words of Iranologist Richard Nelson Frye:
- Many times I have emphasized that the present peoples of central Asia, whether Iranian or Turkic speaking, have one culture, one religion, one set of social values and traditions with only language separating them.
The Culture of Persia has thus developed over several thousand years. But historically, the peoples of what are now Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, are related to one another as part of the larger group of peoples of the Greater Iranian cultural and historical sphere. The Northern Caucasus is well within the sphere of influence of Persian culture as well, as can be seen from the many remaining relics, ruins, and works of literature from that region.(e.g. 1)(e.g. 2)
Contributions to humanity in ancient history
From the humble brick, to the windmill, Persians have mixed creativity with art and offered the world numerous contributions. What follows is a list of just a few examples of the cultural contributions of Greater Iran.
- (10,000 BC) - Earliest known domestication of the goat.
- (6000 BC) - The modern brick. Some of the oldest bricks found to date are Persian, from c. 6000 BC.
- (5000 BC) - Invention of wine. Discovery made by University of Pennsylvania excavations at Hajji Firuz Tepe in northwestern Iran.
- (5000 BC) - Invention of the Tar (lute), which led to the development of the guitar.
- (3000 BC) - The ziggurat. The Sialk ziggurat, according to the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran, predates that of Ur or any other of Mesopotamia's 34 ziggurats.
- (3000 BC) - A game resembling backgammon appears in the east of Iran.
- (1400 BC - 600 BC) - Zoroastrianism: where the first prophet of a monotheistic faith arose according to some scholars, claiming Zoroastrianism as being "the oldest of the revealed credal religions, which has probably had more influence on mankind directly or indirectly, more than any other faith".
- (576 BC - 529 BC) - The Cyrus Cylinder: The world's first charter of human rights.
- (521 BC) - The game of Polo.
- (500 BC) - First Banking System of the World, at the time of the Achaemenid, establishment of Governmental Banks to help farmers at the time of drought, floods, and other natural disasters in form of loans and forgiveness loans to restart their farms and husbandries. These Governmental Banks were effective in different forms until the end of Sassanian Empire before invasion of Arabs to Persia.
- (500 BC) - The word Check has a Persian root in old Persian language. The use of this document as a check was in use from Achaemenid time to the end of Sassanian Empire. The word of [Bonchaq, or Bonchagh] in modern Persian language is new version of old Avestan and Pahlavi language "Check". In Persian it means a document which resembles money value for gold, silver and property. By law people were able to buy and sell these documents or exchange them.
- (500 BC) - World's oldest staple.
- (500 BC) - The first taxation system (under the Achaemenid Empire).
- (500 BC) - "Royal Road" - the first courier post.
- (500 BC) - Source for introduction of the domesticated chicken into Europe.
- (500 BC) - First cultivation of spinach.
- (400 BC) - Yakhchals, ancient refrigerators. (See picture above)
- (400 BC) - Ice cream.
- (250 BC) - Original excavation of a Suez Canal, begun under Darius, completed under the Ptolemies.
- (50 AD) - Peaches, a fruit of Chinese origin, were introduced to the west through Persia, as indicated by their Latin scientific name, Prunus persica, from which (by way of the French) we have the English word "peach."
- (271 AD) - Academy of Gundishapur - The first hospital.
- (700 AD) - The cookie.
- (700 AD) - The windmill.
- (864 AD - 930 AD) - First systematic use of alcohol in Medicine: Rhazes.
- (1000 AD) - Tulips were first cultivated in medieval Persia.
- (1000 AD) - Introduction of paper to the west.
- (935 AD - 1020 AD) - Ferdowsi writes the Shahnama (Book of Kings) that resulted in the revival of Iranian culture and the expansion of the Iranian cultural sphere.
- (980 AD - 1037 AD) - Avicenna, a physician, writes The Canon of Medicine one of the foundational manuals in the history of modern medicine.
- (1048 AD - 1131 AD) - Khayyam, one of the greatest polymaths of all time, presents a theory of heliocentricity to his peers. His contributions to laying the foundations of algebra are also noteworthy.
- (1207 AD - 1273 AD) - Rumi writes poetry and in 1997, the translations were best-sellers in the United States.
- Algebra and Trigonometry: Numerous Iranians were directly responsible for the establishment of Algebra, the advancement of Medicine and Chemistry, and the discovery of Trigonometry.
- Qanat, subterranean aqueducts.
- Wind catchers, ancient air residential conditioning.
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- ^Arthur Henry Robertson and J. G. Merrills, Human Rights in the World: An Introduction to the Study of the International, Political Science, Page 7, 1996; Paul Gordon Lauren, The Evolution of International Human Rights: Visions Seen, Political Science, Page 11, 2003. ; Xenophon and Larry Hedrick, Xenophon's Cyrus the Great: The Arts of Leadership and War, History, Page xiii, 2007
- ^Link: BBChttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4272210.stm